Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs (PDF: sicp.pdf) is a popular book used as an introduction to computer science. It uses MIT Scheme, and covers concepts that are now mainstream concerns, like concurrent programming, functional programming, and lazy evaluation.
In Configuring Vim for SICP, the author explains how to set up Vim and tmux for following along with the book. Racket is recommended as the Scheme interpreter, because the REPL is more friendly than MIT Scheme. There's also a third-party package to support people reading SICP.
Steve Losh's tslime.vim fork is recommended for quickly evaluating code by passing it from Vim to tmux and the Scheme interpreter.
When I read SICP a few years ago I used MIT Scheme with rlwrap, so you can try that if you have issues installing Racket. Another option is SICP in Clojure, which would work well with fireplace.vim. It's still being worked on, and there's a lot of comment spam, but I've always found Clojure a very accessible Lisp dialect.